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Elective Course Profiles of BSc in EEE

Credits: 3+0 = 3, Pre-requisite: EEE 308

Course content
Introduction: Nano-dimension and paradigm, definitions, background and current practice. Technology transitions from more-Moore beyond CMOS towards more-than-Moore heterogeneous integration technologies. Nanofabrication & characterization: Brief processing steps of Nano-devices fabrication, Nano-lithographic and Nano-characterization techniques. Techniques of nanomaterial growth: Top down and bottom up approaches, molecular electronics, nanocrystal growth, self-assembly and self-organization. CMOS nanotechnology: Scaling of transistors dimension, Advances in Microelectronics—From Microscale to Nanoscale Devices and non-classical nano-MOSFET structures. Carbon based nanotechnology: The geometry of nanoscale carbons, formation, band structure, structural and electronic properties; Fullerenes: Families of fullerenes, reactivity and potential applications; Carbon nanotubes: Molecular and supra-molecular structure, properties of single wall and multi wall carbon nanotubes, synthesis and characterization, applications. Nanotechnology in magnetic systems: Magneto resistive materials and devices and nano-magnetic storages. 2D electronics: The Challenging Promise of 2D Materials for Electronics, 2D Layered Materials: From Materials Properties to Device Applications: paradigm shift from Single-crystalline, poly-crystalline and amorphous silicon/germanium thin film towards III-V materials; Metal oxide thin films and molybdenum-di-sulfide material system. Bionanotechnology: Brief introduction to the integration of conventional nanoelectronics with life sciences, biomimetic nanostructures, bimolecular motors and biosensors.

Course rationale
Nanotechnology is behind many cutting edge electronic devices that find applications in diverse areas such as modern computer processors, data storage devices and biosensors. This course provides a comprehensive understanding of nanotechnology by covering material growth, nanoscale device fabrication and characterization techniques. Students will have an in-depth understanding of existing CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) technology as well as exploratory materials such as carbon based nanotechnology, 2D materials and group III-V semiconductors.

Course objectives
The objectives of the course are to

  1. Discuss history of scaling in CMOS technology from microscale to nanoscale
  2. Explain the challenges of fabricating nanoscale transistors and discuss the future of scaling
  3. Discuss nanoscale device fabrication, nanolithography and device characterization techniques 
  4. Discuss the challenges and opportunities of nanotechnology based on emerging materials such as carbon, 2D materials and group III-V semiconductors
  5. Explain nanoscale storage technologies using magnetic systems
  6. Explain the application of nanotechnology for biomedical applications

Course outcomes
At the end of the course, the students are expected to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of:

  1. Explain nanoscale fabrication and characterization
  2. Describe different types of nanomaterials and/or nanostructures and their applications
  3. Discuss advances in microelectronics from microscale to nanoscale
  4. Molecular electronics, nanoscale optoelectronics/photonics, MEMS, NEMS etc.

Credits: 3+0=3, Pre-requisite: EEE 308

Course content
Optical Properties of Semiconductors: Direct and indirect band-gap materials, radiative and non-radiative recombination, optical absorption, photo generation of excess carriers, minority carrier life time, luminescence and quantum efficiency in radiation. Photo-Detectors: Photoconductors, junction photo-detectors, PIN detectors, avalanche photodiodes and phototransistors. Solar cells: solar energy and spectrum, operation, I-V characteristics and performance analysis of p-n junction solar cells, technology trends. Light Emitting Diode (LED): Principles, materials for visible and infrared LED, internal and external efficiency, loss mechanism, structure and coupling to optical fibers. Stimulated Emission and Light Amplification: Spontaneous and stimulated emission, Einstein relations, population inversion, absorption of radiation, optical feedback and threshold conditions. Semiconductor Lasers: Population inversion in degenerate semiconductors, laser cavity, operating wavelength, threshold current density, power output, optical and electrical confinement. Introduction to quantum well lasers.

Course rationale
Optoelectronic devices such as LED and Laser are important electronic components in application fields such as high speed communications and lighting and optical imaging. To design and model such devices, one needs an in-depth knowledge of their device physics and dynamic behaviors. This course aims to develop students’ skills for analysis and design of such devices.

Course objectives
The objectives of the course are to

  1. Explain the band structure of optical materials
  2. Explain the optical processes in semiconductors
  3. Analyze the physics and performance characteristics of different types of photo-detectors
  4. Analyze the physics and performance characteristics of solar cells
  5. Discuss the technology trend of solar cells
  6. Analyze the physics and performance characteristics of LEDs
  7. Analyze the physics and performance characteristics of semiconductor lasers

Course outcomes
At the end of the course, the student will be able to

  1. Explain the key concept of electrical and optoelectronic properties of materials, their applications to optoelectronic devices and the major optical processes in semiconductors
  2. Explain and analyze the optoelectronic device physics of solar cells, photo-detectors, light-emitting diodes and laser diodes
  3. Analyze and compare the optoelectronic device characteristics
  4. Describe the current trend of selected optoelectronic devices and techniques to improve their characteristics for new applications by employing the understanding of optoelectronic device physics

Credits: 3+1=4, Pre-requisite: EEE 308

Course content
Introduction: Semiconductor materials & devices, key semiconductor technologies Crystal growth: Silicon crystal growth from melt, silicon Float-Zone process; GaAs crystal growth techniques. Cleaning: Surface cleaning, Organic and metal contamination removal, RCA and PIRANHA cleaning, impact of cleaning on device performance. Silicon oxidation: Thermal oxidation, impurity redistribution during oxidation, masking properties of silicon Dioxide, oxide characterization techniques. Photolithography: Photo reactive materials, pattern generations and pattern transfer, Optical lithography, advanced lithographic techniques: Electron beam lithography, Extreme ultraviolet lithography, X-ray lithography, Ion beam lithography, Nano imprint lithography & comparison of different lithographic methods & technology node. Etching: Wet chemical etching: Silicon, silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, aluminum and different metals, GaAs etching, Dry etching: Plasma fundamentals, etch mechanisms, plasma diagnostics & end point control, Reactive plasma etching techniques and equipment, Reactive plasma etching applications, selective etching, dry physical etching, ion beam etching etc. Diffusion: Basic diffusion process, extrinsic diffusion, lateral diffusion, Diffusion simulation. Doping techniques: Diffusion and Ion implantation, Ion distribution, stopping and channeling, Implant damage annealing, multiple implantations & masking, high energy and high current implantation. Material growth techniques: Chemical vapor deposition, Epitaxial growth techniques, chemical vapor phase epitaxy, Molecular beam epitaxy, Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition.  Thin film and dielectric deposition: Silicon dioxide, nitride, low and high-K dielectrics deposition techniques, poly & amorphous silicon deposition techniques, Metallization: E-beam evaporation, thermal evaporation, sputtering and silicidation. Process Integration: Passive components, Bipolar, CMOS, SOI, MESFET, MEMS/NEMS and Heterogeneous Integration. Future trends & challenges: Integration challenges: Ultra shallow junction formation, ultra-thin oxide, silicide formation, new materials for interconnection, power limitation, SOI integration and system-on-a-chip.

The course includes lab work based on the concepts introduced.

Course rationale
Life nowadays cannot be thought without electronics. Electronics is everywhere from personal computer to digital camera or camcorder, in cell phones and even in automobiles. Electronics industry surpassed the automobile industries in1998 and semiconductor industry is the foundation of the electronics industry, which is the largest industry in the world with global sales over several trillion dollars since 1998. The course contents are structured around the state-of-the-art facilities in modern semiconductor industries like INTEL, IBM, IMEC etc. The various fabrication techniques that are relevant for micro/nano devices in the field of electronics, optoelectronics and micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) will be addressed in the lectures, with an emphasis on their physical and chemical principles. The integration of these techniques will be explained with an example of a complete process flow for the fabrication of a specific microdevice.

Course objectives
The objectives of the course are to

  1. Introduce and appreciate the modern micro/nano fabrication technology
  2. Provide an overview of fabrication techniques and mechanisms
  3. Introduce the characterization tools associated with micro/nano fabrication
  4. Illustrate integration of the various techniques with a specific micro/nano device

Course outcomes
At the end of the course, the students are expected to

  1. Demonstrate knowledge and understanding on the fundamental principles and tools  used for  major fabrication steps like oxidation, lithography, etching, diffusion other micromachining processes.
  2. Design fabrication process flow for micro/nano system devices based on different material systems.
  3. Differentiate fabrication technology for different types of device processes.
  4. Perform process simulation for specific device fabrication to find out parameters of different fabrication steps and integrate them to realize the device in any fabrication facility.

Credits: 3+1=4; Pre-requisite: EEE 205

Course content
MOS devices and technology: Different MOS models, simulation and associated accuracy; Brief introduction to IC fabrication: Wafer processing, die preparation and interrelation between device simulation, CAD layout and processing; Layout for VLSI: Standard cell layout, Design rules, Full and semi-custom design, Floor planning, Bit slice design;  transmission gates, inverter, ring oscillator and latch up effects; Interconnects; Performance estimation: rise time & fall times, gate sizing & power consumption; VLSI architecture design and optimization: Basic gates: NAND, AND, NOR, OR, XOR, multiplexor, shifters; Arithmetic circuits: Adder, subtractor, comparator, multiplier; Sequential cell design: Latch, registers, counters; Embedded memories: RAM, EEPROM etc.; simple microprocessor; Digital design using System Verilog: Introduction to System Verilog, module design, place & route; layout optimization; IC packaging and testing.

The course includes lab work based on the concepts introduced.

Course rationale
VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) technology started it's era in 1970’s when thousands of transistors were integrated into one single chip. Nowadays, industries are able to integrate more than a billion transistors on a single chip which has brought tremendous benefits to our everyday life. VLSI circuits are used everywhere, real applications include microprocessors in a personal computer or workstation, chips in a graphic card, digital camera or camcorder, chips in a cell phone or a portable computing device, and embedded processors in an automobile. This course covers different phases of designing integrated circuits that is somehow inevitable for EEE students for understanding electronics now a day. It is expected that the course will provide students necessary background to work in IC fabrication facilities.

Course objectives
The course aims to:

  1. Discuss standard submicron CMOS devices and principles of digital integrated circuit design
  2. Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of VLSI architectures like basic gates, arithmetic circuits, Sequential cell, Embedded memories, simple microprocessor and optimization
  3. Identify issues related with transistor sizing, power consumption and parasitic effects on system design
  4. Manage a complex system through systematic approach of cell design, the use of hierarchy, place and route and test strategy to reduce the problems of debugging large system
  5. Design complex systems using a hardware description language
  6. Verify function and performance of designs using digital and analogue simulators

Course outcomes

At the end of the course, the students are expected to

  1. Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of digital CMOS integrated circuit design considering fabrication steps starting from basic device simulation, transferring them into CAD layout and possible fabrication steps through process simulation.
  2. Analyze VLSI architectures considering issues related with transistor sizing, power consumption and parasitic effects.
  3. Design a complete IC using systematic approach of cell design, the use of hierarchy, place and route and performance verification.
  4. Design complex systems using a hardware description language

Credits: 3+0=3, Pre-requisite: EEE 308

Course content
Charge carriers and carrier statistics in semiconductors. Drift and diffusion of carriers. Generation-recombination of excess carriers. P-N junctions in Equilibrium: junction formation, energy band diagram, space charge. Current flow in a P-N Junction: basic physics, carrier injection, the diode equation, reverse-bias breakdown, reverse recovery transient, diffusion and junction capacitances. Metal semiconductor junctions: Schottky barrier, rectifying and Ohmic contacts. Bipolar junction transistor: BJT fundamentals, energy band diagrams, minority carrier profiles, BJT currents and current gains. Metal-oxide-semiconductor FET: ideal MOS capacitor, different biasing modes, flatband threshold voltages, capacitance-voltage characteristics, current-voltage relationships, non-ideal effects. Device scaling. Industry trends in semiconductor devices.

Course rationale
Semiconductor devices are at the heart of modern integrated electronics as well as power electronics. Knowledge and understanding of how semiconductor devices operate is necessary not only for device design and analysis but also for design and performance analysis of modern complex electronic circuits. This course on one hand provides knowledge of existing devices and skills for analysis, and on the other hand, equips the student with necessary knowledge and skills on fundamentals theories of semiconductor physics so that the students understand the physics, operation and challenges of emerging semiconductor devices.

Course objectives
The objectives of the course are to

  1. Enable the students understand how the basic principles of solid-state physics are used to explain semiconductor properties
  2. Develop capability of the students to draw energy band diagrams of semiconductor devices
  3. Develop capability of the students to calculate electric charge, current, voltage and capacitance of semiconductor devices
  4. Enable the students to investigate the relationship between material properties, device architecture and device characteristics
  5. Enhance self-learning capacity of the students by going beyond class room lectures and discussions

Course outcomes
At the end of the course, the students are expected to

  1. Explain how the basic concepts of solid-state physics relate to the different properties of semiconductors
  2. Determine the energy band diagrams of different semiconductor devices under different operating conditions
  3. Calculate charge, current, voltage and capacitance of different semiconductor devices under different operating conditions
  4. Investigate how material properties and structural parameters affect the device characteristics
  5. Assess the trends of the semiconductor device industry by reviewing literature

Credits: 3+1=4, Pre-requisite: EEE 202

Course content
Brief review of BJT and MOS amplifiers; Current mirror: general properties, basic, cascade and active-load current mirrors; Active load: complimentary, depletion and diode-connected active loads for BJT and MOS amplifiers, differential pair with active load; Voltage and current references: supply independent biasing, temperature insensitive biasing, proportional to absolute temperature current generation and constant transconductance biasing; D/A and A/D converters: ideal circuits, quantization noise, performance limitations, different types of converters; Switched capacitor circuits: sampling switches, basic operation and analysis, switched capacitor amplifier, integrator and other switched capacitor circuits.

The course includes lab work based on the concepts introduced.

Course rationale
Analog integrated circuits have their contributions to the field of communication, sensors, biomedical etc. To be able to design such circuits, one needs to have strong fundamental background about the functionality, performance parameters, pros and cons of different topologies and technological influences. This course introduces the design aspects of amplifier (biasing network, different loading effect, different amplifier topologies etc.), A/D & D/A converters and switch capacitor circuits. The aim of this course is to develop the skills required for designing and analyzing electric circuits in nanometer process/technology.

Credits: 3+0=3, Pre-requisite: EEE 309

Course content
Human body: Anatomical terminology, structural level of the human body, muscular, skeletal, nervous, cardio-vascular, respiratory systems; Physiological instrumentation: Measurement systems & amplifiers, biopotentials (ECG, EMG, EEG and neurostimulation methods), cardiovascular instrumentation (pacemakers, blood pressure, defibrillator, dissolved gas measurement, blood flow measurements, plethysmography, cardiogrpahy & cardioverter), Imaging technology: X-Ray, gamma camera, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, cerebral angiography, tomography, ultrasound imaging, including doppler ultrasound; Bioanalysis, diagnostic methods: electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing as applied to genomic and proteomic applications; mass spectrometry as applied to proteomic, metabolomics applications, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging as applied to metabolomics applications, biophotonic methods for analysis and imaging, conventional diagnosis(ELISA and overview of urine, blood and tissue based clinical diagnostic tests), biosensing approaches related to remote and intelligent sensing (evolving technologies i.e. bionanotechnology & nanosensors, drug delivery, diabetic monitoring, epilepsy and pain management); ICU/CCU monitoring, Sources of information and regulations with regard to medical devices: Reports and investigations with respect to electrical/electronic technology on human health aspects, Regulations, standards, and approaches for taking devices from the research lab to the clinic.

Course rationale
Biomedical Engineering is an exciting new area, applying the principles of science and engineering to the medical technologies used in the diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of patients.The course offers you the opportunity to become one of the next generation of engineers needed to meet the demands of this highly technological industry. It will educate you in the design and development processes needed for new specialist medical healthcare processes, problems and technological advances involving materials, imaging, monitoring, simulation and microelectromechanical systems.

Course objectives
This course aims to provide an in-depth understanding, appropriate to an engineer, of medical technologies for clinical applications. Having successfully completed the course, students will be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of:

  1. Human anatomy and physiology (as appropriate to an engineer)
  2. Physical/electrical properties of human tissues and organs including their biological function (as appropriate to an engineer)
  3. Physiological measurement principles & instruments
  4. The application and operation of medical imaging systems, monitoring and in vivo sensing systems
  5. Electrical and electronic methods for biomolecular and cellular based analytical and diagnostic applications
  6. Emerging technologies like biosensing approaches related to remote and intelligent sensing
  7. Regulation, standardization of medical technologies and requirements for bringing new technologies to market.

Course outcomes
At the end of the course, the students are expected to

  1. Demonstrate knowledge and understanding on the human physiology & anatomy (as appropriate to an engineer) to enable engagement with clinicians.
  2. Understand the principles of Physiological measurements and medical imaging systemsapplied by clinicians and biomedical researchers to their field.
  3. Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of Electrical and electronic methods for biomolecular and cellular based analytical and diagnostic applications.
  4. Appraise emerging technologies in biomedical engineering. 
  5. Source and apply literature from many different sources towards electronic and electrical applications for healthcare, be conversant with documentation applicable to the environmental impact of biomedical instruments on human health, and the regulations, standardization of medical technologies.

Credits: 3+1=4, Pre-requisite: EEE 305

Course content
Transmission lines: Voltage and current in ideal transmission lines, reflection, transmission, standing wave, impedance transformation, Smith chart, impedance matching and lossy transmission lines. Waveguides: general formulation, modes of propagation and losses in parallel plate, rectangular and circular waveguides. Micro strips: Structures and characteristics. Rectangular resonant cavities:  Energy storage, losses and Q. Radiation and Antenna: Small current element, radiation resistance, radiation pattern and properties, Hertzian and halfwave dipoles. Antennas: Mono pole, horn, rhombic and parabolic reflector, array, and Yagi-Uda antenna.

The course includes lab works based on the concepts introduced.

Credits: 3+1=4, Pre-requisite: EEE 307

Course content
Introduction to Communication channel:Communication channels, mathematical model and characteristics; Probability and stochastic processes. Description of M-array digital modulation systems: PSK, MSK, QAM; Source coding: Mathematical models of information, entropy Huffman code and linear predictive coding, Lempel-Ziv algorithm. Optimal Receiver Design: Matched filter, Bit error rate; Coherent receivers: ASK, FSK, PSK modulations; Incoherent receivers: ASK, FSK, PSK modulations; DPSK, MAP, ML, MQAM. Detection of M-ary signals: Eye diagrams and intersymbol interference (ISI); Bit error performance in presence of AWGN and ISI; Channel capacity: Entropy for continuous random variables; Channel capacity; Shannon's second theorem; Capacity of a band-limited Gaussian channel. Channel coding: Error correcting codes; Linear block codes; cyclic codes;

The course includes lab works based on the concepts introduced.

Course rationale
Communication is always been a promising professional field for electrical engineers. Therefore, thorough grounding in the theory and practice of modern digital communication systems is a must for future engineers willing to work in this field. This course aims to provide a sound understanding of the standards of digital communication systems from a global perspective.

Course objectives
The objectives of the course are to

  1. Develop a thorough understanding of the basic structures and fundamental principles of modern digital communication systems
  2. Enable students to analyze the commonly used techniques of modulation, source coding, and channel coding
  3. Develop a profound understanding of information, entropy and channel capacity in the context of digital communications and coding
  4. Enable students to design optimal digital receivers

Course outcomes
At the end of the course, the students are expected to

  1. Explain the basic structures and fundamental principles of modern digital communication systems
  2. Analyze the commonly used techniques of modulation, source coding, and channel coding.
  3. Apply the concepts of information, entropy and channel capacity to study communications and coding.
  4. Design optimal digital receivers.

Credits: 3+1=4, Pre-requisite: EEE 307

Course content
Wireless Channels: Signal propagation, Dispersive channels and multipath, Path loss, Shadowing, Small-scale fading, Statistical fading models, Slow fading, fast fading and Doppler, Level crossing rate and fade duration, narrowband channels. Channel Equalization and Impairments: Maximum likelihood sequence estimation, Nyquist’s condition for zero intersymbol interference, linear equalization (zero forcing and minimum mean-square error), Nonlinear equalization (decision-feedback equalization), Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing, Single-carrier transmission with frequency-domain equalization. Diversity and Multiplexing: SNR outage probability, Diversity gain, Coding gain, Time diversity, Spatial diversity, Frequency diversity, Diversity reception, Equal-gain combining Selection combining, Maximum ratio combining, Diversity transmission, Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), Space-time coding, Alamouti code. Capacity and System Performance: Ergodic capacity, Parallel channels, Diversity channels, Effects of channel state information at the transmitter and/or the receiver, Information outage probability, error probability. Interference and Multiple Access: Uplink and downlink, Cellular network models, Signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio, Wireless LAN, Wireless PAN, TDMA, (O)FDMA, CDMA, Frequency hopping.

The course includes lab work based on theory taught.

Course rationale
Communication is always been a promising professional field for electrical engineers. Moreover, the wide spread progression of wireless technology all over the world has led to the emergence of  the wireless communication engineering as one of the major stem of engineering in research and practice. This course aims to provide a sound understanding of the standards of wireless communication systems.

Course objectives
The objectives of this course are to

  1. Develop an understanding of the salient properties of wireless channels, channel fading and how different statistical fading models apply in different contexts, important parameters of interest, including the level crossing rate and the fade duration, for simple statistical fading models
  2. Explain how a receiver can recover a transmitted message using optimal and suboptimal techniques in nondispersive and dispersive channels
  3. Enable the students to formulate the system model for dispersive and nondispersive wireless channels and calculate linear equalizers for narrowband and wideband systems
  4. Enable the students to analyze the concept of diversity and how it can be exploited in practice, be able to calculate the outage probability for basic diversity channels and use this to determine the diversity and coding gains of a system.
  5. Develop an understanding of main sources of interference in wireless networks and how interference is modeled for the purposes of system analysis and design, diversity techniques, and design of architectures that would yield a prescribed diversity gain.
  6. Enable the students to analyze multiple-input multiple-output channels and where and how these channels are encountered in practice, as well as to identify the advantages and disadvantages of linear and nonlinear methods of detection. Enable the students to analyze the capacity and error probability of practical wireless channels.

Course outcomes
At the end of this course, the students are expected to

  1. Explain the salient properties of wireless channels, channel fading and how different statistical fading models apply in different contexts; be able to calculate important parameters of interest, including the level crossing rate and the fade duration, for simple statistical fading models
  2. Explain how a receiver can recover a transmitted message using optimal and suboptimal techniques in nondispersive and dispersive channels
  3. Be able to formulate the system model for dispersive and nondispersive wireless channels and calculate linear equalizers for narrowband and wideband systems
  4. Analyze the concept and motivation for diversity and how it can be exploited in practice, be able to calculate the outage probability for basic diversity channels and use this to determine the diversity and coding gains of a system, proposition of architectures that would yield a prescribed diversity gain
  5. Analyze multiple-input multiple-output channels and where and how these channels are encountered in practice, and be able to describe advantages and disadvantages of linear and nonlinear methods of detection 
  6. Be able to quantitatively analyze the capacity of key wireless channels encountered in practical systems, error probability for basic wireless communication systems. Explain the main sources of interference in wireless networks and how interference is modeled for the purposes of system analysis and design

Credits: 3+0=3,Pre-requisite: EEE 309

Course content
Introduction to digital image processing, fundamental steps in Digital Image processing, components of an image processing system, elements of visual perception, image sensing and acquisition, image sampling and quantization, relationships between pixels, introduction to mathematical tools used in digital image processing. Intensity transformations and spatial filtering: Background, basic intensity transformation functions, histogram processing, fundamentals of spatial filtering, smoothing and sharpening spatial filters, combining spatial enhancement methods, and fuzzy techniques for intensity transformations and spatial filtering. Filtering in Frequency Domain: Review of 1-D DFT, extension of DFT to two variables, properties of 2-D DFT, basics of filtering in frequency domain, image smoothing and sharpening using frequency domain filters, selective filtering and implementation. Image restoration and reconstruction: Model of the image degradation/restoration process; noise models; Restoration in presence of noise only: spatial filtering; Periodic noise reduction by frequency domain filtering, linear position-invariant degradations, estimating the degradation function. Filtering techniques: Inverse, Wiener, Constrained least square, Geometric mean. Color image processing: Color fundamentals, color models, pseudocolor image processing, basics of full-color image processing, color transformations, smoothing and sharpening, image segmentation based on color, noise in color images, and color image compressions.  

Course rationale
Image processing is of fundamental importance to any field where improvement of pictorial information for human interpretation is required. It is also necessary for the processing of image data for image storage, transmission, and representation for autonomous machine perception. It plays a key role in remote sensing, medical imaging, inspection, surveillance, autonomous vehicle guidance, and more. The course contains theoretical material introducing the mathematics of images and imaging, as well as computer exercises designed to introduce methods of real-world digital image manipulation using the relevant programming tools and packages.

Course objectives
The objectives of the course are to

  1. Develop an understanding of the fundamentals of digital image processing
  2. Enable the students to analyze different image manipulation techniques
  3. Enable the students to apply image filtering techniques
  4. Develop the capability to design a system to perform a specific image processing task
  5. Develop the ability to use standard tools and packages for image processing

Course outcomes
On completion of the course, the students will be able to,

  1. Explain the general terminology in digital image processing
  2. Compare signal processing algorithms for image manipulation
  3. Apply filters for image enhancement and feature extraction
  4. Design image processing systems to perform specific tasks 
  5. Use standard programming tools and packages for image processing

Credits: 3+0=3, Pre-requisite: EEE 307

Course content
Principle, evolution of telecommunication networks. National and International regulatory bodies, Telephone apparatus, telephone Exchanges, subscriber loop, supervisory tones, PSTN. Switching systems: Crossbar switching systems, stored program control (SPC) systems, Space division switching, time division switching, Blocking probability and Multistage switching, and Digital memory switch. Traffic analysis: Traffic characterization, grades of service, network blocking probabilities, delay system and queuing. Integrated services digital network (ISDN): N-ISDN and B-ISDN, architecture of ISDN, B-ISDN implementation. Digital subscriber loop (DSL), Wireless local loop (WLL), FTTx, SONET/SDH, WDM Network, IP telephony and VoIP, ATM network and Next Generation Network (NGN).

Course rationale
The objective of this course is to introduce the senior EEE students to the advanced telecommunication engineering. Students will learn rigorously various switching systems and acquire ability to analyze modern teletraffic network. The trend of present communication technologies is also focus of this course.

Course objectives
The objectives of the course are to

  1. Introduce the students to telecommunication engineering at an extended level.
  2. Enable students to analyze switching systems and compute parameter of interest.
  3. Enable students to perform traffic analysis for delay system.
  4. Develop a thorough understanding regarding ISDN, DSL, SONET/SDH, ATM.

Course outcomes
At the end of the course, the students are expected to

  1. Analyze thoroughly various switching systems employed in telecommunication.
  2. Calculate blocking probabilities for different systems.
  3. Perform traffic analysis for queuing and delay system. 
  4. Describe present trends in communication engineering.

Credits: 3+1=4, Pre-requisite: EEE 205

Course content
Introduction to network and protocol. The Network Edge, Core, and Access, Networks Physical Media Delay and Loss in Packet-Switched Networks ,Protocol Layers and Their Service Models, Internet Backbones, NAPs and ISPs, a Brief History of Computer Networking and the Internet. The Application Layer: Principles of Application-Layer Protocols, The World Wide Web: HTTP, File Transfer: FTP, Electronic Mail in the Internet, The Internet’s Directory Service: DNS, Socket Programming. The Transport Layer: Transport-Layer Services and Principles, Multiplexing and Demultiplexing Applications,  Connectionless Transport: UDP, Principles of Reliable of Data Transfer, TCP case study , Principles of Congestion Control, TCP Congestion Control. The Network Layer:  Introduction and Network Service Model, Routing Principles, Hierarchical Routing.  IP:  The Internet Protocol, routing in the Internet, What is Inside a Router, Mobile networking. The Link Layer and Local Area Networks: The Data Link Layer: Introduction, Services, Error Detection and Correction, Multiple Access Protocols and LANs, LAN Addresses and ARP, Ethernet   Hubs, Bridges and Switches, Wireless LANs: IEEE 802.11, PPP: the Point-to-Point Protocol, ATM.  Security in Computer Networks: What is Network Security, Principles of Cryptography Authentication, Integrity, Key Distribution and Certification, Firewalls, Attacks and Countermeasures Protocols.

The course includes lab work based on the concepts introduced.

Course rationale
Computer networks play a very important role in the society by connecting remote IT systems and allowing users to share data through the network. After taking this course students will be able to understand the standards, analyze the requirements for a given network and address the security issues.

Course objectives
The objectives of the course are to

  1. Enable the students to analyze basic architectures of computer networks.
  2. Understand network protocols, network layers
  3. Understand network security issues
  4. Identify limitations of existing network protocols and propose new solutions

Course outcomes
At the end of the course, the students are expected to

  1. Understand the OSI Reference Model
  2. Analyze the requirements for a given organizational structure and select the most appropriate networking architecture and technologies
  3. Understand the basic use of cryptography and network security 
  4. Specify and identify deficiencies in existing protocols, and then go onto formulate new and better protocols

Credits: 3+1=4, Pre-requisite: EEE 205

Course content
Information representation and transfer, instruction and data access methods, the control unit: hardwired and micro programmed, memory organization, I/O systems, channels, interrupts, DMA, Von Neumann SISD organization, RISC and CISC machines. Pipelined machines, interleaved memory system, caches, Hardware and architectural issues of parallel machines, Array processors, associative processors, multiprocessors, systolic processors, data flow computers and interconnection networks, High level language concept of computer architecture.

The course includes lab works based on the concepts introduced.

Credits: 3+1 = 4, Pre-requisites: EEE105, EEE302

Course content
Embedded Systems Descriptions: Definitions and terminologies, architecture, design philosophies of microcontroller families, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). Overview of FPGA: FPGA architecture, configurable logic block structure, memory hierarchy, look up tables, I/O blocks. Overview of microcontrollers: 8 bit and 32 bit microcontrollers, special registers, instruction sets, digital signal processors. Design Considerations in Embedded Systems: Specifying requirements, selection of microcontrollers/ FPGAs, tradeoffs, issues related to energy and power. Programming Embedded Systems: FPGA programming using VERILOG/ VHDL, microcontroller programming using C, programming I/O ports, interrupts, timers, A/D converter, analog comparator, PWM, Debugging. Supervisory Circuits: Watchdog timer, reset. Interfacing with Embedded System Peripherals: Hardware and software requirements. Memory Mapping: EEPROMs. Embedded Systems Networks: Serial peripheral interface (SPI), (inter-integrated circuit) I2C, (universal synchronous/asynchronous receiver/transmitter) USART and serial communications. Interfacing with a Personal Computer. Designing embedded systems.

The course includes lab works based on the concepts introduced.

Course rationale
An embedded system is a computer system designed to perform a dedicated function. These systems interact with the physical world and are sometimes part of a larger system. Embedded system applications can be found all around us and in versatile fields, such as, consumer electronics, medical equipment, toys, industrial control, traffic control, energy management, automobiles etc. With the increasing popularity of embedded systems, it is becoming essential that modern day engineers are equipped with the knowledge of designing embedded systems and programming the required firmware. This course aims to provide students with the competence to design and understand embedded systems.

Course objectives
The objectives of this course are to

  1. Develop an understanding of the key features of embedded systems.
  2. Enable the students to write firmware for embedded systems.
  3. Choose appropriate components for designing embedded systems.
  4. Develop the capabilities to design embedded systems.
  5. Enable the students to simulate embedded systems using sophisticated software tools.

Course outcomes
A student successfully completing this course will be able to

  1. Classify the key components of an embedded system
  2. Compose firmware for embedded systems to perform specified tasks.
  3. Choose various embedded system components based on features and requirements.
  4. Design embedded systems for specific applications. 
  5. Simulate embedded systems using advanced tools.

Credits: 3+0=3, Pre-requisites: EEE 304

Course content
Introduction to mechanical components used in power stations: internal combustion engines,boilers, steam turbines and gas turbines. Methods of generation of electricity in different types of power plants: hydroelectric, steam, gas, combined cycle and nuclear power plants.Comparison among types of plants, selection of plant location for different types of plants, plant performance and operation characteristics. Estimation of load, load curves, interpretation and analysis of load curves. Determination of demand and capacity of various components in a system, plotting of the expected load curve of a system, load growth and extrapolation of load curves. Selection of units, standby units, large or small units, number and sizes of units. Base load and peak load, capacity scheduling, load division between steam and hydro plants. Economics of power generation: calculation of depreciation, cost per unit generated. Bus systems: different types of bus system layouts. Substations: classifications and equipment of a substation.

Course rationale
Industrial strength, thus economic health of any modern country strongly depends on the availability of the electric energy and on the volume of its use. A country must expand its electric power generation at least at the same rate of its industrial growth. For this reason, the electrical engineers need to be able to take part in designing, developing and maintaining the power stations of their respective countries. After studying this course students will be capable of taking this challenge.

Course objectives
The objectives of the course are to

  1. Introduce the students to different  equipment of power stations
  2. Enable the students to select plant type, plant location and unit size for particular cases
  3. Enable the students to evaluate plant capacity to meet load demand
  4. Develop student ability to calculate depreciation and cost of energy
  5. Introduce the students to substations and bus systems

Course outcomes
At the end of the course, the students are expected to

  1. Understand the operation of  different equipment in different types of power stations
  2. Analyze requirements of different types of power plants to select type, site and unit size
  3. Evaluate capacity of plant by analyzing load demand
  4. Calculate economics of power generation 
  5. Understand roles of bus and sub-stations in transmission of generated power

Credits: 3+1=4, Pre-requisite: EEE 304

Course content

Circuit breakers; speed of circuit breakers. Relays Voltage rating (high, medium, lower, low) of circuit breakers. Oil circuit breakers. Circuit breaker operating mechanism and control systems. Arc extinction. Recovery voltage. Devices to aid are extinction in oil. Maintenance of oil circuit breakers, minimum oil circuit breakers. Air circuit breakers, air blast circuit breakers, vacuum circuit breakers, SF6 circuit breakers. Ratings of power circuit breakers and selection of circuit breakers. Testing of circuit breakers. Protective Relays: General requirements. Relay operating principles. Construction of relays. Relay currents and voltages; use of instruments transformer for relays. Problems of high speed relaying of transmission lines. Over current relays. Directional relays. Distance relays. Sequence and negative sequence relays. Balanced current relaying of parallel line. Ground fault relaying. Pilot relaying principles. Carrier pilot relaying. Operating characteristics of different types of relays. Apparatus protection; circuits and relay setting. Generator motor protection; Transformer protection. Bus protection; line protection.

The course includes lab works based on the concepts introduced.

Credits: 3+0=3, Pre-requisite: EEE 304

Course content
Introduction to high voltage engineering - High voltage transmission/distribution systems - Overvoltage types and insulation types - Withstand levels, S curves; insulation coordination. Breakdown mechanisms in solids, liquids, gases and vacuum - High voltage transmission/distribution systems - Overvoltage types and insulation types Testing and Weibull statistics - Non-destructive testing of apparatus; insulation resistance, tan d, partial discharge - Measurements - Destructive testing: short term breakdown test, life testing, accelerated life testing. - Weibull statistics. System over voltages - Occurrence and characteristics, power frequency and harmonics, switching - Lightning over voltages; transient calculations, Bewley lattice diagrams, wave tables - Attenuation and distortion of surges; overvoltage protection devices, rod and expulsion gaps; surge diverters Circuit breakers - Types - General principles of operation. High voltage generators - Impulse generators - Cascaded transformers and series resonant circuits - Rectifier circuit and Cockcroft-Walton cascade circuits High voltage measurements - Electrostatic meters - Impedance dividers: resistive dividers and capacitive dividers - Digital techniques

Course rationale
High voltage engineering deals with high voltage transmission, distribution and protection. With increase in electric power consumption, high voltage is becoming increasingly more important. This course aims to prepare the students to deal with various challenges related to high voltage engineering.

Course objectives
The objectives of the course are to

  1. Develop a general understanding of the students about high voltage technology and insulation
  2. Develop student capabilities to apply statistical data analysis approaches
  3. Enable the students to understand breakdown mechanisms of insulators of different phases
  4. Enable the students to design protection systems by analyzing transient over voltages
  5. Enable the students to assess insulation quality from test results

Course outcomes
At the end of the course, the students are expected to

  1. Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of high voltage technology and insulation design in general
  2. Apply statistic approach to analyze testing data
  3. Understand breakdown mechanisms in solids, liquids and gases
  4. Design protection systems by analyzing transient over voltages
  5. Examine the quality of insulation from data of diagnostic tests

Credits: 3+0=3, Pre-requisites: EEE 202, EEE 304

Course content
Conventional energy sources, reserves, challenges, alternatives. Solar radiation, spectrum, insolation, geographical and atmospheric factors, basic operation and characteristics of solar cells. Solar PV system, load curve, maximum power point tracking, design of stand-alone and grid connected PV systems. Wind power, temperature and altitude corrections, efficiency, wind turbine generators, grid connection, probability distribution function, capacity factor. Biomass, properties, aerobic and anaerobic processes, environmental impact. Emerging renewable energy sources. Fuel cells and hydrogen based economy. Energy economics, energy and environment, introduction to smart grid and sustainability.

Course rationale
Successful harnessing of renewable energy resources requires understanding of a number of interrelated issues including global and local environmental and technological challenges. Moreover, the ability to characterize and analyze various renewable energy technologies is essential to make judicial choices, design systems and predict system performance. This course aims to prepare the students to undertake these challenges in a global perspective.

Course objectives
The objectives of the course are to

  1. Develop an understanding of the technological, environmental and economic issues driving the harness of renewable energy
  2. Enable the students to characterize and analyze different renewable energy technologies including solar photovoltaic, wind, biomass and hydroelectricity
  3. Enable the students to make comparison among different renewable energy technologies to select the appropriate resource for a particular locality
  4. Develop capability to design solar photovoltaic systems
  5. Impart the skills to calculate cost of renewable energy
  6. Develop an understanding on how renewable energy can influence sustainability and how smart grid can facilitate the use of renewable energy 

Course outcomes
At the end of the course, the students are expected to

  1. Explain the technological, environmental and economic basis for harnessing renewable energy
  2. Analyze different renewable energy technologies and their fundamental characteristics
  3. Compare different renewable energy technologies and choose the most appropriate one based on local conditions
  4. Design simple solar photovoltaic systems
  5. Calculate the cost of energy produced from renewable sources 
  6. Analyze issues related to smart grid and energy sustainability

Credits: 3+0=3,Pre-requisites: EEE 304, STA 102

Course content
Power Semiconductor Switches and Triggering Devices: BJT, MOSFET, SCR, IGBT, GTO, TRIAC, UJT and DIAC. Rectifiers: Uncontrolled and controlled single phase and three phase. Regulated Power Supplies: Linear-series and shunt, switching buck, buck boost, boost and Cuk regulators. AC Voltage Controllers: single and three phase. Choppers. DC motor control. Single phase cycloconverter.  Inverters: Single phase and three phase voltage and current source. AC motor control. Stepper motor control. Resonance inverters. Pulse width modulation control of static converters.

Course rationale
Modern power systems have grown larger with many interconnections between neighboring power systems. Proper planning, operation and control of such large power systems require advanced computer based techniques. This course will provide strong foundation in classical methods and modern techniques in power systems for senior level electrical engineering students for various normal and fault conditions, which includes load flow, balanced and unbalanced fault and transient stability analyses.

Course objectives
The objectives of the course are to

  1. Understand the operation of power systems in a competitive environment
  2. Understand various issues arising from electricity market operations
  3. Analyze various operational and control issues using new mathematical models
  4. Discuss operational practices of various electricity markets around the world

Course outcomes

At the end of the course, the students are expected to

  1. Understand the solution methods of economic dispatch and static state estimation and explain the automatic generation control of a multi-area system
  2. Apply the gradient and the Newton’s method to unconstrained nonlinear optimization problems
  3. Apply the Lagrange’s method to the economic dispatch of thermal units
  4. Analyze the automatic generation control and carry out a small-signal analysis of a multi-area system 
  5. Understand and derive the weighted least-squares state estimation method of an electric power system

Credits: 3+1=4,Pre-requisites: EEE 202, EEE 304

Course content
Introduction to power electronics, Power processing (DC-DC, DC-AC, AC-DC, and AC-AC conversion) ,Applications of power electronics; Analysis of DC-DC converters in equilibrium, Principles of inductor volt-second balance and capacitor charge (amp-second) balance, Small-ripple assumption; Basic magnetic modeling and design, Inductor modeling, DC transformer modeling and equivalent circuit, Step-by-step design procedures for inductor and transformer designs, Loss estimation; Switch realization, Multi-quadrant switches, Survey of power semiconductor switches specific to power electronics (diode, power MOSFET, IGBTs, and thyristors), Switching (turn-on and turn-off) and conduction loss calculations, Gate-driver requirements and designs; DC-DC power-converter topologies and modulation, Isolated and non-isolated converter topologies; Converters dynamics and control, AC equivalent circuit modeling, Voltage-and current-mode controls, linear feedback-controller design, Converter transfer functions; Rectifier circuits, Single-ended and double-ended rectifier circuits, Half-bridge and full-bridge rectifiers; Introduction to basic inverters, voltage source inverters (VSI), inverter voltage control techniques, PWM inverters, Ideal current source inverters (CSI).

The course includes lab works based on the concepts introduced.

Course rationale
Modern power electronics devices and circuits are now in widespread use, across an ever-increasing number of power conversion and power control applications. This course will provide a strong foundation in power electronics for engineers, including a strong laboratory component. This course gives a detailed introduction to the key aspects of power electronic circuits, components and design. Techniques for analyzing and designing switch-mode power supplies, DC-DC converters, power rectifiers, static power inverters and universal power supplies are examined, along with electric machines, motors and transformers, and their associated power electronics drive requirements. The course also gives an overview on the electrical power system in the context of power electronics applications and their interaction with the power network.

Course objectives
The objectives of the course are to

  1. Study basic operation of different switching power converters and analyze their performance and design of power state of dc-dc converters for dynamic specifications.
  2. Design inductors and transformers for high-frequency power converters.
  3. Utilization of power converters in dc and ac motor drives and rectifiers.
  4. Survey power semiconductor switches specific to power electronics and different kind of losses in power electronic circuits.
  5. Enable the students to make comparison among different converters and inverters for different uses

Course outcomes
At the end of the course, the students are expected to

  1. Construct mathematical models of different types of inverters, converters and rectifiers
  2. Identify the characteristics of power electronics systems from their transfer functions
  3. Design of converters satisfying specific requirements
  4. Examine power electronics systems for different required specifications
  5. Simulate Power electronics circuits using industrial standard software and hardware

Credits: 3+0=3,Pre-requisites:to be decided by the concerned faculty member.

Course content
An advanced course on a new or emerging topic of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, which is not covered by the course curriculum, may be offered under this title. Prior approval of DDC is required for offering a special topic course. Not more than one course on special topic may be offered in any semester.

Credits: 3+0=3; Pre-requisites: completion of 90 credit hours. Concerned faculty member may require additional pre-requisites.

Course content
Any specific research topic and/or problem as suggested by the concerned faculty member.

Course rationale
The undergraduate experience is greatly enriched by attaining research experience. There are numerous benefits for undergraduate students who get involved in research. Research experience allows undergraduate students to better understand published works, learn to balance collaborative and individual work, determine an area of interest, and jump start their careers as researchers. Through exposure to research as undergraduates, many students discover their passion for research and continue on to graduate studies and faculty positions. Participating in undergraduate research is a great way to interact with experts, acquire new knowledge, develop analytical and problem-solving abilities and gain valuable experience for graduate school applications and resumes. When you contribute to research as an undergraduate, you’ll not only develop academic and professional skills, but also help improve the world around you through discovery.

Course objectives
The objectives of this course are to

  1. Enable the students to conduct literature review
  2. Enable the students to investigate complex problems
  3. Enable the students to select appropriate research tools and methods
  4. Teach students how to communicate effectively research findings
  5. Develop an appreciation for self-learning

Course outcomes
Having successfully completed the module, you will be able to:

  1. Review research literature relevant to engineering problems
  2. Conduct investigations of complex problems using research-based knowledge and research methods
  3. Select and apply appropriate resources and/or modern engineering tools
  4. Write effective reports and make effective presentations. 
  5. Demonstrate the depth for continuous learning